Logical fallacies

Logical fallacies: how to avoid them?

First, let us define the fallacies, which are nothing more than attempts to convince the reader through information that does not follow a coherent logic. In practice, for example, it means using disconnected arguments to create an exaggerated emotional appeal or to misrepresent a person’s argument for a more striking counterattack.

That is, in fact, this is a way to weaken your argument. So avoiding some paths that induce us to use these fallacies is ideal. Using the example quoted above, it would be something like this: “Every man is mortal. Socrates is a man. Joan is not a man. Therefore, Joan is immortal. ” Hi?

So do not be this writer who uses this kind of argument by logic using a non-sense sequence to support his point of view.

Another example you should avoid is to appeal to the popularity of an invalid argument as a way to support your positioning. These are claims that most people would certainly agree on, but are not, in fact, true.

Examples of such use are very common in speeches and texts that speak of a sense of justice, for example, in assessing who should or should not be guarded. As soon as you identify the logical fallacies in your text, remove them.


This stage of the text is ideal to resume your point of view, reinforce it and, if possible, bring it closer to reality. In the case of content marketing, a good way is to suggest to the persona how that blog post can be useful in her life or, who knows, invite her to study more about the topic she is talking about.

Overall, this is the moment when the author of the text tells the reader: I care about you, I want you to learn and I want to offer you even more content.

Another important attribute of a good conclusion is to include the call to action. It should indicate the next step you want the reader to make from your text, such as share content on social networks, leave a comment, or download e-book.

For argumentative text cases, this is the time you have to finalize the conversation, presenting a solution and / or suggestion for the problem put. Again, remember: moment to be succinct and direct … Without delay!

Well, tell the truth: did you imagine there was so much behind the essays you wrote as you prepared for Enem? Or that he could apply all this knowledge to his writing career? Well, neither do we!

The main characteristic of a good argumentative text is to be convincing. Calling the reader’s attention to a point of view, lecturing on a controversial topic, or simply selling a product is certainly a difficult task as we all have distinct thoughts and experiences based on unique experiences.

Therefore, using appropriate justifications is necessary. No use, you will not seduce someone by just imposing an opinion or determining a position. The reader has his own convictions and certainly will not change his mind in the case of a cursed argument.

Think of a day-to-day discussion. Fallacies and screams will not have the expected result, and may even have the opposite effect.

Therefore, the following is a series of tips for developing arguments that convince and convert.

Use statistical data

Surveys are one of the best methods to prove that something makes sense. Numbers do not lie, they are accurate, unlike opinions, which are subjective.

For example, did you know that only 8% of Brazilians are able to express themselves correctly? This further reinforces the importance of argumentative texts, which is the focus of this content. Do you see how this brings the article into force?

Of course, the credibility of the research director also counts a lot. Therefore, it is worth mentioning that the data presented were collected in partnership by the Instituto Paulo Montenegro (IPM) and the NGO Acción Educativa in the year 2016. As serious organizations, the reader will probably believe in the information.

For this reason, statistics are a key element in writing a perfect essay. They bring an extra and often incontrovertible element about what was said.

In a classroom, the teacher asks the students a question: which is the biggest company in the world? Some students propose to answer it.

One of them says it’s company X because it has more revenue. Another thinks that it is company Y, because it presents a greater value in branding. A third alleges that it is the organization Z, which has the largest infrastructure and number of employees.

Realize that none of them are wrong, but use relevant data to strengthen your arguments. Do not underestimate the value of statistics.

Use Storytelling

A few days ago, I went to watch a football game at one of these corner bars. Cruzeiro and Atletico were faced by the semifinals of the State.

Suddenly two drunks began to argue, a representative of each team, of course. The first said that Cruzeiro is the largest team in Minas Gerais, as it has the highest fans and the highest number of titles. The other countered, saying that Atletico won more state, has the most passionate fans and reveals more players abroad.

A third individual approaches:

  • Nothing like that. The biggest team in Minas is America.

Outraged, the other two fans question the young man. They want to know the reason for the allegation, to which he responds:

“Well, it’s simple. I’m not drunk.

The previous example is an anecdote told by the miners. The ability to tell stories to reveal a point of view is very welcome in essays. They make it easier for the reader to understand and keep them attentive to the next paragraph.

Cite Fonts

In today’s world, with the advent of the internet and consumer empowerment, people are influenced all the time. So it’s no exaggeration to say that authority has never been so relevant.

Think about it: if someone told you a few years ago that the design of a product is as important as performance, you’d probably doubt it. That’s what happened at one of Steve Jobs’s lectures, and only then did the user experience become a priority for many segments of the market.

This is because the view of experts tends to be heard and considered. Try to focus on authorities on the issue at hand.

If you advocate sustainable development, it is worth quoting the opinion of environmentalist Carlos Bochuhy to reinforce the argument. If you want to criticize American sovereignty over the other nations of the continent, what about presenting the documentary on the theme of director Michael Moore? And if you need to point out the harmful effects of tobacco on the human body, bring up a quote from doctor Dráuzio Varella.

Of course, people will feel much more comfortable listening to someone who understands the subject.

Avoid absolutism

This is a much more used term in political matters than in other subjects, is not it? However, in writing, it is very common to find this type of construction.

Here, the tip is simple: get away from blunt opinions and no room for challenge. Remember that many readers may disagree, so there is no such thing as the owner of reason.

Instead, try to convince him through ideas and be open to discussion. Sometimes it is worth even quoting counterpoints, to later dismantle it. Its positioning can generate controversy, which is good, as long as it does not exceed the limits of respect.

Agree to generate empathy

One of the best known persuasion techniques is the generation of empathy. You can, for example, put yourself in the reader’s shoes. When he sees himself in a certain situation, he will certainly continue reading in order to solve his own problems or learn more about the subject.

A good example, in this very text, would be to start it like this:

“It is not easy to write an argumentative text. Convincing someone that their point of view is correct is a difficulty for many content writers and college students. “

Further on, the reader would have the answer to that question. By doing this in the beginning, you have the chance to capture your attention right away, but you can use the feature throughout the article.

Now that you already know how to leave your argumentative texts and web productions calibrated, check out our super guide to write the perfect text!

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